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E-rickshaws gained prominence in India in early 2010 when these vehicles started operating in suburban and urban areas of Delhi–NCR, towns of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal. E-rickshaws are zero tailpipe emission modal option used as first-/last-mile connectivity in these cities. Majority of e-rickshaw operation in these areas are unplanned inclusion or a pilot-planned inclusion, later expanding in an unplanned way. With sales of around 4.5 lakh units in 2019, currently there are over 10 lack e-rickshaws in operations in India. Delhi was the largest market for e-rickshaws during the historical period with over 20% volume share in the India e-rickshaw and on-demand ride hailing market in 2019.
Increasing partnerships between government authorities and public bodies is a major trend for the India e-rickshaw and on-demand ride hailing market. As Government of India (GOI) and state authorities regularize use of e-rickshaws, numerous projects are launched under public–private partnership arrangement. For instance, in June 2017, with a view to provide convenience to its commuters by ensuring last-mile connectivity from the metro stations, the first E-Rickshaw service was formally flagged-off by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC). After this, DMRC has been continuously partnering with other aggregators to expand its services for its different stations.
The ownership pattern is of 3 tiers. At some occasions, the well-off drivers buy the rickshaws in complete lumpsum payment; second, they get their vehicles financed either through banks, non-banking financial companies (NBFC), or local unregulated lenders, which makes them suspectable to high loan rates and eventually debt traps. The third one is taking rickshaw on daily rent basis.
Charging infrastructure and subsequently charging is a major challenge for all the rickshaw operators in the India e-rickshaw and on-demand ride hailing market, since it hinders their mobility on large trips and longer working hours. A battery usually takes 7–10 hours to fully charge for operational strength of 80–110 km depending upon the load and age of battery. Due to unavailability of regulated and fast-charging stations, drivers are forced to use services of unorganized players where they face theft, vehicle vandalism, hefty charges, voltage fluctuations, and longer wait time.
The India e-rickshaw and on-demand ride hailing market research report touches extensive geographical area, covering entire urban framework, that is, tier 1, 2, and 3 cities. The list of cities includes Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Pune, Bangalore, and Hyderabad, in tier 1 category; Jaipur, Lucknow, Bhopal, Nagpur, Chandigarh, Surat, Varanasi, and Ranchi in tier 2; and Mathura, Bhagalpur, Haridwar, Udaipur, Kharagpur, and Gaya in tier 3.
The distribution of cities across framework is included keeping in mind equitable distribution of research across northern, southern, eastern, and western zones of India.
The India e-rickshaw and on-demand ride hailing market research report covers user’s geographical profile analysis in tier 1, 2, and 3 cities, based on user profiling; scope of e-rickshaw services for short-distance travel, metro connectivity, carrying school children, work trip, and others; preference of e-rickshaws for general purpose and first-/last-mile connectivity; existing mode of last-mile transport in tier 2 and tier 3 cities; average distance traveled and average expenditure on last-mile transportation; average distance and expenditure of transportation from nearby tier 3 cities/towns to villages; user’s current commuting patterns; hurdles associated with existing last-mile transportation; and challenges, motivation, and recommendations for ride hailing services.
The study tries to touch upon driver profile analysis in tier 1, 2, and 3 cities, based on educational background, work background, driver’s professional and personal aspirations, willingness to work with transportation network companies (TNC), gender and age, motivation factors, and expectations and loyalty. Additional analysis includes number of drivers to be acquired for the services, challenges associated with the acquisition of the drivers in targeted cities, addressal of drivers’ hidden needs, various sources/channels to acquire the drivers, current challenges being faced by the drivers, demand and opportunities available in the India e-rickshaw and on-demand ride hailing market.
The India e-rickshaw and on-demand ride hailing market is fragmented in nature, characterized by the presence of various domestic players, such as Ola Electric Mobility Pvt. Ltd., SmartE (Treasure Vase Ventures Private Limited), Oye! Rickshaw (Khati Solutions Private Limited), Sheru, e-yAna (VGARCEDO Technologies Private Limited), and Mauto Electric Mobility Pvt Ltd.
In recent years, the key players in the India e-rickshaw and on-demand ride hailing market are majorly engaged in product launches and several other business activities to gain the competitive edge. For instance, in June 2017, with a view of providing convenience to its commuters by ensuring last mile connectivity from the metro stations, the first e-rickshaw service was formally flagged-off by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC). DMRC has extended the facility of e-rickshaw services by SmartE to 12 more stations across the Delhi Metro network. As of February 2020, more than 800 SmartE e-rickshaws are operational in 17 stations ferrying approximately 100,000 passengers per day.
Similarly, Hyderabad-based ETO Motors, an Electric Mobility as a Service (EMaaS) provider, commenced e-rickshaw first-mile and last-mile services at selected metro stations in Delhi from March 2020. Some other partners of ETO Motors are Noida Metro Rail Corporation (NMRC), Hyderabad Metro Rail (HMR), Kochi Metro Rail Ltd. (KMRL), Nagpur Metro Rail Project (NMRL), South Central Railway, and Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC).
The research offers market analysis of the India e-rickshaw and on-demand ride hailing market for the period 2020–2030.
Market Sizing and Industry Dynamics