Rhinovirus is a small, non-enveloped, icosahedral virus having size of around 27 nm diameter. It contains one positive-strand RNA and belongs to Picornavirus family. Discovered in 1956, rhinovirus has over 100 antigenically distinct serotypes such as RhV A, RhV B groups, and RhV A2 and RhV C subclasses, based on their sequence similarity and cell entry receptors. Human rhinovirus is a positive-sense RNA virus of 7.2 kb single strand, having single open reading frame joined to a 5′ untranslated region and a short viral priming protein. HRV A, HRV B and HRV C, are subtypes of human rhinovirus species, responsible for human diseases such as respiratory tract infection. Approximately 200 different viruses 30%-50% of all cases are known to cause symptoms of the common cold. The symptoms of the rhinovirus infection depend on the pathology associated with it. The most common symptoms include runny nose, nasal congestion, fever, headache, cough, sneezing, sore throat, rhinorrhea, croup in infants, tracheitis, and malaise that may last for 1 - 2 weeks.
The rhinovirus infection therapeutics pipeline has more than 15 drugs. In pipeline analysis, drugs are analyzed on the basis of route of administration and molecule type. The pipeline is also analyzed on the basis of monotherapy and combination therapy, and different clinical phases including Phase III, Phase II, Phase I and Preclinical stage.
Phase III clinical trial known for the comparison of new treatments with the standard treatment in which the safety, efficacy and side effects of new intervention is compared with the already existing treatment. The Phase III clinical trial takes around 2-3 years to complete and the total number of participants vary from 100-1,000. In rhinovirus infection therapeutics, there is no drugs has entered into Phase III trial.
Interferon beta-1a, a Phase II drug candidate of Astrazeneca plc was licensed from Synairgen plc for further development and treatment of rhinovirus infections that exacerbates asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Phase II clinical trial is the second phase that answer safety, efficacy and dosing of the new intervention. It takes around 2 years to complete and between 100 – 120 patients participate in the Phase II trial.
Phase I clinical stage has no single drugs for rhinovirus infection. In Phase I clinical trial, safety of the new intervention is determined. The trial takes around 1-2 years to complete and the total number of volunteers participating in the trial vary between 15 – 30.
3-V Biosciences, Inc. is developing TVB-3567, a preclinical drug candidate for the treatment of various viral infections such as human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus 3, severe adult respiratory syndrome virus and hepatitis viruses. TVB-3567 is a broad spectrum antiviral drug which targets fatty acid synthase and inhibits its action. The therapeutic candidate is an analog of imidazopyridine-based molecules. Preclinical study is also known as animal study. It is done before testing a drug in people to find out the toxicity profile of the drug. Preclinical study is of two types, including In vitro and In vivo.
Clinical development pipeline analysis provides description about the key companies developing rhinovirus infection drugs. Some of the key players actively involved in the research and development are Novartis AG, Bioorganic Research and Services, S.A., Atopix Therapeutics, Ltd., Meissa Vaccines, Inc., 3-V Biosciences, Inc., Astrazeneca plc and AIMM Therapeutics.