The pulmonary arterial hypertension therapeutics pipeline is expected to increase in over next few years due to increasing prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Pulmonary arterial hypertension causes difficulty in blood supply to the lungs due to stiffness, tightening or blockage of a pulmonary artery. Some of the drivers for the growth of pulmonary arterial hypertension therapeutics pipeline include increasing incidence of vascular disease, change in lifestyle, sedentary lifestyle, lack of physical activity, increase in levels of blood pressure in people and obesity. As estimated by the current scenario, 15-50 cases per million have been found across the world. The prevalence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in HIV patients is 0.5%, while that in systemic sclerosis patients is 7% to 12% and is in the range of 2-3.75% in sickle cell disease patients.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by abnormally high blood pressure in pulmonary artery and other blood vessels that carries blood from the heart to the lungs, which causes shortness of breath during routine activity, chest pains, tiredness and racing heartbeat. Pulmonary arterial hypertension occurs due to inflammation in the pulmonary arteries. It also occurs because of tightening of arterial walls, stiffness and blood clot formation in the arteries, due to which it becomes difficult to push blood through the pulmonary arteries into the lungs.
Most of the companies are conducting clinical trials for the development of potential drug candidates who can overcome the disease. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. is developing a compound – Riociguat, in collaboration with Bayer AG, which is in Phase III clinical trials. Riociguat is used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in children. United Therapeutics Corporation is developing a drug - UT-15C, also known as treprostinil, which is currently in Phase III clinical development. Arena Pharmaceuticals is introducing a drug, APD811, also known as Ralinepag, which is currently in Phase II clinical development. Ralinepag is a selective IP receptor agonist, given orally and targets the prostacyclin pathway for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Eiger BioPharmaceuticals, Inc. is developing a drug, Ubenimex, which is in Phase II clinical development. Ubenimex is small molecule and dual inhibitor of aminopeptidase and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H). Ubenimex is given orally and is currently approved in Japan to maintain remission after treatment of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia in adults. Eli Lilly and Company is testing a drug by the name Tadalafil, against pulmonary arterial hypertension, which is currently in Phase III clinical development. Reata Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is introducing a compound - Bardoxolone methyl, which is currently in Phase II clinical development. Bardoxolone methyl is an antioxidant inflammation modulator, which has also received orphan drug designation for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Many institutes or associations and companies are collaborating for developing therapeutics for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Glaxosmithkline Plc and Myogen, Inc. is collaborating for development and commercialization of selective endothelin receptor antagonist, which is currently in Phase III. United therapeutics corporation collaborated with Ascendis Pharma A/S for development and commercialization of self-injectable Treptostinil for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
Some of the key players having a pipeline of arterial hypertension therapeutics include Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Bayer AG, Pfizer Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Eiger BioPharmaceuticals, Inc. Arena Pharmaceuticals, United Therapeutics Corporation, Reata Pharmaceuticals, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline Plc.