The pipeline for glioma therapeutics is expected to experience rising research activities in future due to raise in funding by the orphan disease organization such as, National Organization of Rare Disorders. Many novel therapies such as, gene therapies, cell therapies are being developed for the treatment of glioma. Various technological advancements in research and development techniques is also be one of the key factors leading to the upsurge in the growth of glioma pipeline therapeutics. Additionally, increasing awareness among people regarding various health issues and treatments available is also adding to the development of glioma therapeutic pipeline.
Glioma is a type of brain tumour that arise from glial cells, which provide a protective aid to the neuron in brain. There are basically three types of tumours in which glial cells are involved such as, astrocytoma, ependymomas and oligodendromas. Some of the most common symptoms that occur in glioma are, nausea, headache, confusion, memory loss, seizure, one-sided weakness, difficulty in walking and personality changes. Patients already suffering from brain tumour are usually at a high risk of also developing other diseases such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or brain stroke. Glioma in brain can be diagnosed with the help of MRI scanning. The treatments of glioma include, surgery, chemotherapy, brachytherapy, radiation therapy and treatments with steroids.
In June 2015, Agios Pharmaceuticals, Inc. conducted a clinical trial for the development of mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) inhibitor, AG-881, is currently in Phase I stage of development and is given orally. Most of the IDH1 or IDH2 mutations are associated with cancers such as glioma, acute myeloid leukaemia and chondrosarcoma. In various Pre-clinical studies, it has been found that this drug has an ability to penetrate in the blood brain barrier. CBT Pharmaceutical Inc. is in the process of developing an innovative dug in oncology therapeutics which is c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and is known as CBT-101. The drug also demonstrates high selectivity and efficacy toward suppression of tumour growth in lung, gastric tumour models. In December 2012, Oblato, Inc. started a clinical trial for a drug namely, OKN-007 (2,4-disulfophenyl-PBN), which has shown its anti-glioma properties in pre-clinical studies and is in Phase I stage of development. In September 2015, AbbVie, Inc., started a clinical trial on drug, ABT-414 for treatment of malignant glioma in Japanese patients. ABT-414 is given in combination with Temozolomide and the study is currently recruiting in Phase I.
In October 2015, Merck & Co., Inc. and DNAtrix entered into a collaboration for the purpose of developing as well as monitoring the safety and efficacy of the drug DNX-2401, which mostly target the retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway. DNX-2401 has shown strong killing potential against recurrent glioblastoma by inhibiting Retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway, which is usually present in many cancers. In January 2015, Bristol-Myers Squibb and Eli Lilly and Co. entered into a collaboration to evaluate nivolumab in combination with galunisertib in advance solid tumours. Opdivo is a programmed cell death blocker and galunisertib selectively blocks TGF beta signalling pathway, which led to suppression of tumour cell growth.
Some of the companies having a pipeline of glioma therapeutics include, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd., Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd., Arbor Pharmaceuticals LLC., and F. Hoffmann-Le Roche AG, Agios Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., Angiochem Inc., Eurofarma Laboratorios S.A., Genentech, Inc.