Rapidly increasing pace of life, change in lifestyle, higher stress levels, etc., are few of the major factors to which the increasing prevalence of cluster headache scan be attributed. Further, unhealthy dietary intake, smoking, alcoholconsumption and growing levels of pollutionare few other factors which are expected to fuel the incidence of cluster headache problem. The Therapeutic pipeline of cluster headache is expected to grow in future with the participation of various pharmaceutical companies that are focusing on developing novel drugs for curing the problem of cluster headache. As per WHO, problem of cluster headache is more common in men, as compared to women, and mostly in people in the age group of 20 to 40 years. According to a recently published NCBI paper, one of every 1,000 adults in the U.S. experiences the problem of cluster headache. In spite of the problem of cluster headache being very common, it has mostly been under-recognized and has been overlooked.
Cluster headache, also called ashistamine headache, is a primary headachedisorder of the nervous system, and is a headache of constant nature, experienced over a prolonged period of time, occurring mostly at night during sleep. According to the studies conducted by International Headache society (IHS), during cluster headache the patient experiences very severe pain, which occurs for duration of 15 to 180 minutes, once a day. Lacrimation, facial sweating, eyelid edema, restlessness, runny nose, rhinorrhea, ptosis, one-sided pain, nasal congestion, miosis & conjunctivitis, are few of the symptoms ofdiagnosing cluster headache.
The therapeutic pipeline of cluster headache includes some of the important therapeutic agents or drugs which are presently under the pipeline of different pharmaceutical companies. Eli-lly&Company is developing Galcanezumab drug, for the treatment of cluster headache and migraine. Galcanezumab is under Phase III clinical trials and is subcutaneously administered. It is a monoclonal antibody that targets calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and inhibits their activity. Fremanezumab is a drug being developed by Teva Pharmaceuticals Industries Ltd. for the treatment of chronic migraine, episodic migraine & cluster headache.
Fremanezumab is under Phase III clinical trials and is subcutaneously administered. The drug is a monoclonal antibody that is antagonist to caclcitonin gene-related peptide receptor. Civanex (Zucapsaicin) drug is being developed by Winston laboratories for the treatment of episodic cluster headache, knee osteoarthritis and migraine. Civanex is under Phase III clinical trialsand is intravenously administered. Civanexis is an alkaloid which inhibits the activity of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential cation channel sub family v member 1). All the drugs including Galcanezumab, Fremanezumab and Civanex show efficacy to treat cluster headache.
Some of the companies having a pipeline of cluster headache therapeutics include Eliy-lilly& Company, Teva pharmaceuticals industries Ltd, Winston laboratories,Gilead Sciences, Inc., Galapagos NV, Astellas Pharma, Abbvie, Inc., Bexalta US, Inc., Optimer pharmaceutical LLC.