The prevalence of clostridium difficile associated diarrhea has been increasing all across the world on account of unchecked use of antibiotics and laxatives by people, which creates a suitable medium for the growth of the bacteria. Clostridium Difficile is a commonly noticed disease in people above 65 years of age, as they tend to consume antibiotics and laxatives for easy and effective bowel movement. The therapeutic pipeline of clostridium difficile associated diarrhea is growing with the involvement of various pharmaceutical companies that are working towards the development of drugs or therapeutic agentsto be used for the treatment of clostridium difficile associated diarrhea. According to a paper published by NCBI, in 2012, clostridium difficile associated diarrhea is responsible for causing diarrhea to 3 million people in the U.S. Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) is also caused by nosocomial infection, acquired from hospitals due to presence of different viruses and pathogens in the hospitals. It is projected that the number of cases related to clostridium difficile associated diarrhea would increase in the future, with increase in unrestrained consumption of antibiotics.
Clostridium difficile is a rod-shaped gram positive bacterium, which is responsible for causing diarrhea. It is the most common type of infection, and is usually found more in developing countries such as India, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Nepal and China. Some of the symptoms of clostridium difficile associated diarrhea include severe colitis, fever, abdominal pain, dehydration, rapid heart rate, nausea, blood in the stool and loss of appetite. Clostridium difficile has been reported as more common in women and older patients.
The therapeutic pipeline of clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) includes some of the important therapeutic agents or drugs being developed by different pharmaceutical companies. Astellas pharma Inc., is engaged in developing Fidaxomicin drug, in collaboration with Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., for the treatment of clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD). Fidaxomicin is under phase III clinical trials and is administered orally. Fidaxomicin is an antibiotic which is bactericidal & inhibits the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase that is responsible for the transcription in bacteria. Cadazolid is another drug being developing by Actelion Inc. It is under Phase III clinical trials and is orally administered. Cadazolid, a novel antibiotic, is a strong inhibitor of protein synthesis in clostridium difficile and suppresses the formation toxin and spore. DAV132 is a drug developed by Da volterra Inc., and is under pre-clinical phase. The drug, which is orally administered, is a synthetic molecule which that binds to the antibiotics & neutralizes it in the gut.
Some of the companies having a pipeline of clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) therapeutics include Astella pharma Inc.,Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp,Actelion Inc., Da volterra Inc.,Eliy-lilly& Company, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Galapagos NV, Astellas Pharma, Abbvie, Inc., Bexalta US, Inc., Optimer pharmaceutical LLC.